Applying Overload Principe in Training

Applying Overload Principe in Training. Load refers to the mass or amount of weight used in developing strength. As suggested by figure A below the following loads may be employed in training:
SUPERMAXIMUM or a load which exceeds one’s maximum strength. In most cases loads between 100-175% should be used by applying the eccentric, or opposing (known also as negative) gravity method. Elite class weight lifters often employ 105-110% of maximum strength two-three times per week by employing the concentric(or positive) method. When supermaximum loads arc used it is advisable to have two individuals, one at each end of the barbell, to assist or guard the performer so that accidents arc avoided, (i.e., in bench press employing the negative method a barbell may fall on the performer’s chest). Supermaximum loads are to be used during maximum strength development by only those athletes with a strong background in strength training. Most other athletes should be restricted to a load of up to 100%.
The Load Training
Figure A.   The load magnitude and abilities developed by employing various loads.
MAXIMUM load, as indicated by the outer circle (fig. 104), refers to a load of 90-400% of one’s maximum.
HEAVY load is used when one employs a load between 60-90% of one’s maximum.
MEDIUM load refers to a percentage between 30-60% of one’s maximum.
LOW is considered to be any load below 30% of one’s capacity.
Muscular endurance, both cyclic and acyclic (to which further reference will be made below) is developed when the load is between 20-80%, while for power one has to employ a load between 30-80%.

The number of repetitions and the rhythm of execution

Both the number of repetitions and rhythm or speed of execution are a function of load; the higher the load the lower the number of repetitions and rhythm of execution.

Figure B

As illustrated by figure B, for the development of maximum strength (90-175%) the number of repetitions is very low (1-3) and is performed slowly. For exercises aimed at developing power (30-80% of maximum) the number of repetitions is moderate (5-10) and they are performed dynamically. As for muscular endurance, the number of repetitions is high, sometimes up to one’s limits (250 or more), performed in a slow to medium rhythm. For acyclic muscular endurance the number of repetitions is between 10-30 while for cyclic it approaches one’s limits.
The rhythm of breathing ought to be in harmony, with the rhythm of performing a movement Usually one inhales prior to the lift During the movement the athlete should hold his/her breath (apnea), and exhale towards the completion of the lift.

The number of sets

A set consists of a number of repetitions of an exercise followed by a rest interval. Between the training demand (load and number of repetitions in our case) and number of sets, there is an inverse relationship: as training demand increases the number of sets must decrease. The number of sets is also a function of the following factors: the athlete’s abilities and training potential, the number of muscle groups that must be trained (a higher number of sets is necessary when few muscle groups are involved), the number of exercises composing a training lesson, and the phase of training. For instance a high jumper who is in a very specialized training program may use only 3-5 exercises, could employ 6-10 sets per lesson. On the other hand, a wrestler who is interested in developing most muscle groups may plan only 3-6 sets. Similarly, during the competitive phase, when in special circumstances an athlete is interested in maintaining only a certain strength level will employ a lesser number of sets as compared to the preparatory phase, when the main objective was the development of strength. Therefore, the conclusion is that the number of sets may vary between 3-8 depending on specific training circumstances. The notation of toad, number of repetitions, and number of sets are expressed as follows: where the numerator (100) refers to the load to be employed, the denominator (8) represents the number of repetitions and the multiplier (4) illustrates the number of sets.

The rest interval and activity during rest   

As a general guideline the rest interval is progressively reduced as the athlete adjusts to training stimuli. However, the rest interval is prolonged as the load increases. The rest interval also depends on the type of strength sought, the athlete’s training status, the rhythm and duration of performance, and the number of muscles involved. Ozolin (1971) suggests that for exercises aiming at developing maximum strength the rest interval should be between 2-5 min. However, longer rest may be recommended (between 5-10 min.) for all out exercises. As for exercises whose objective is to develop muscular endurance the rest interval is shorter, often being 1-2 minutes. Scholich (1974) considers Chat the rest interval, especially for circuit training, has to be associated with the physiological response to a stimuli as indicated by one’s heart rate. When the rate of the heart decreases to 120 bpm, another set may be performed. And finally, it is important that the’ coach consider the individual rate of recovery since each individual reacts differently to similar training stimuli. First study and get to know the athlete and then prescribe precise training programs.

In order to facilitate a quicker recovery between sets, the coach should advise the athlete as to the type of activity to be performed during the rest interval. Relaxation exercises (i.e., shaking the legs, arms and shoulders) and light massage seem to be effective means of facilitating a faster recovery between sets. Baroga (1978) claims that relaxation exercises are indicated especially since heavy load exercises increase the quantity of myostromin (a protein occurring within the framework of a muscle tissue) in muscles which causes muscle rigidity.

The selection means and methods of training as well as the load, number of repetitions, and number of sets are essential to the success of a strength training program. Can be seen that the load, exercises aiming at developing maximum strength is high, for power It is medium to low, and for muscular endurance it is medium to low. On the otherhand, the opposite part of the table suggests that in order to enhance maximum strength the rest interval has to be high, while for power it is high to medium, and for muscular endurance low, to medium, since such exercises place a lower demand upon the body.

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