Sport comprises several dimensions of human acting and behavior, where motor, cognitive, and affective components play a role and which result in the production of many different movement patterns. Sport psychology deals as applied and special psychology and as theory fieald of sport science with different aspects of human sport-related behaviour.
This relates to causes and preconditions, process structures, experiences as well as results and socially implicit relationships of movement behaviour in sport. A system of sport psychology can be seen under three perspectives : 1. psychology of different sports such as e.g. swimming, 2. psychology of different sport areas, e.g. top-level athletics, 3. psychology of basic behaviour patterns in sport, e.g. psychology of play.
The following issues are examples representing the body of knowledge of sport psychology: action psychology and sport training and competition in sport, aspects of sport psychology of sport disciplines; talent in sport; sport and personality; motor development; motor learning; mototr control; aspects of social psychology; movement therapy and movement education; motivational psychology; diagnosis of cognitive and affective aspects of performance in sport.
GABLER (1983, 353-355) defines sport psychology as follows:
“Sport psychology attempts to register human behaviour and experience in the practical field of sport as precisely as possible. This means the following : to describe constancy and change and to predict, if possible, the future process. … The main aspects of current research and literature in sport psychology are in the field of learning and develop mental psychology. … Besides teaching and producing research sport psychologists have become increasingly involved with counselling top-level athletes… . In light of these tasks and activities it makes sense ti characterise sport psychology as a relatively independent part of psychology; one can describe internal structure by means of three categories of specific activities: psychology-related and non-research-oriented activities (counselling of athletes): psychological-technological innovative (research) activities (development of a tennis-test): psychological-scientific innovative (research) activities (problem solving theory for behaviour in skilling). … In regard to the relationship of sport psychology to sport science… additional levels of scientific work can be distinguished : disciplinary orientation:… interdisciplinary additive orientation;… interdisciplinary-integrative orientation.”
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